Opening Minds

Publisher: 
Stenhouse Publishers
Author: 
Peter Johnston
Date Published: 
2012
Grade Level Span: 
preK-12

Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning: Teaching Second Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom

Publisher: 
Heinemann
Author: 
Pauline Gibbons
Date Published: 
2002
Grade Level Span: 
K-5

Talk About Understanding: Rethinking Classroom Talk to Enhance Comprehension

Publisher: 
Heinemann
Author: 
Ellin Oliver Keene
Date Published: 
2012
Grade Level Span: 
preK-2, 3-5

Talking About Text:Guiding Students to Increase Comprehension Through Purposeful Talk

Publisher: 
Shell Education
Author: 
Maria Nichols
Date Published: 
2008
Grade Level Span: 
preK-2, 3-5

Word Wise and Content Rich, Five Essential Steps to Teaching Academic Vocabulary

Publisher: 
Heinemann
Author: 
Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey
Date Published: 
2008
Grade Level Span: 
7-12

Centers

During a portion of the literacy block in the classroom, the teacher establishes independent/group tasks in some type of center format that have a clear instructional purpose. Every independent/group task needs to be related to literature of various genres (ie: reading and response to literature). Routines for independent reading need to be established early in the school year as part of center work.

Gradual Release of Responsibility in Teaching and Learning

Pearson and Gallagher's seminal article (The Instruction of Reading Comprehension, 1983) on comprehension became the basis of the theory of the gradual release of responsibility in teaching and learning. Their review of the research in comprehension proposed a model of guided and independent practice with feedback.

Guided/Small Group Reading (reading by children)

A reading strategy with groups of 3-5 children brought together in a classroom setting. Groups are made up of students with similar needs and/or instructional reading levels. Books are selected by the teacher to be easily read by the children with just limited support by the teacher during the reading. While the teacher is working with a small group, the rest of the students are engaged in independent literacy work activities, including reading independently as part of those activities.

Independent Reading (reading by children)

This is generally a daily literacy activity where the student chooses a text based on individual purpose and interest, is easy to read (95% accuracy and high level of comprehension for the child) while the teacher observes, confers and assists.

Interactive Editing

Use this teaching method to teach students how to select key vocabulary and concepts from a text and then paraphrase and summarize that text using the vocabulary. In a typical lesson using this strategy, the students highlight key terms and phrases in their reading as modeled by the teacher. After highlighting one section, the teacher and students “rewrite” the section in their own words, using all of the key terms and phrases.

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